On This Page:
- Can Pancreatic Cancer Be Caught Early?
- Who Is at High Risk for Pancreatic Cancer?
- What Early Detection Methods Exist for Pancreatic Cancer?
- Pancreatic Cancer Markers
- What Are the Early Warning Signs of Pancreatic Cancer?
- Early Detection Research
- How You Can Help Early Detection Research
Can Pancreatic Cancer Be Caught Early?
Pancreatic cancer is hard to diagnose early. There is no standard diagnostic tool or established early detection method for pancreatic cancer yet.
Early stage pancreatic cancer is usually found if the location of the cancer causes symptoms early or if testing for unrelated medical conditions shows signs of the disease. But most pancreatic cancer patients are diagnosed at stage IV.
Researchers across the world are working to develop early detection methods for pancreatic cancer. In the meantime, those at high risk may consider research studies like surveillance programs. These screening programs use regular monitoring to look for the disease with the hope of finding it earlier if it does develop.
Why Is Early Detection Important?
Patients whose disease is diagnosed in its early stages have better outcomes. This is due to access to more treatment options, including surgery.
For eligible patients, surgery is the best option for long-term survival of pancreatic cancer. It can increase a patient’s survival by about ten-fold. But most patients are diagnosed at later stages and cannot have surgery.
In addition, although 20 percent of pancreatic cancer patients may be eligible for surgery, data shows that up to half of those patients are told they are ineligible. The Pancreatic Cancer Action Network strongly recommends you see a surgeon who performs a high volume of pancreatic surgeries (more than 15 per year) to determine eligibility.
Ways to find pancreatic cancer in the earliest stages are urgently needed. The Pancreatic Cancer Action Network, other advocacy organizations and the scientific community are working to find pancreatic cancer earlier through:
- Awareness of symptoms
- Efforts to improve imaging
- Studies focused on biomarkers (biological clues) that could help doctors diagnose, monitor and treat the disease
- Efforts to improve how people at high risk are found and monitored
Why Is Pancreatic Cancer Hard to Find Early?
- The pancreas is deep in the abdomen. Doctors usually cannot see or feel the tumor during a physical exam.
- Pancreatic cancer symptoms are not always obvious and usually develop over time.
- There are no proven molecular clues, called biomarkers, that can help doctors tell that you have the disease early.
- Tests used to diagnose pancreatic cancer do not always detect small lesions, pre-cancers or early stage cancers well.
- Researchers have had a hard time figuring out whom to screen. Broad screening can cause medical, emotional and financial challenges.
- Doctors use several tests to diagnose pancreatic cancer, but there is no standard, single test.
Who Is at High Risk for Pancreatic Cancer?
Family history is a pancreatic cancer risk factor. If you are a first-degree relative of someone diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, you may have an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Your family member with pancreatic cancer is strongly recommended to undergo genetic testing for inherited mutations.
- Negative results often mean you do not need to get genetic testing.
- If the results are positive, unknown or if you have several close family members with cancer, the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network recommends you consult with a genetic counselor to determine if you should get genetic testing for inherited cancer risk and if you should discuss options for monitoring.
To find genetic counselors near you, contact Patient Central.
The risk increases if more family members are affected with pancreatic cancer or other specific cancers or conditions, including:
- Familial breast, ovarian or colon cancer
- Familial melanoma
- Hereditary pancreatitis: repeating pancreatic inflammation, generally starting by age 20
- Inherited genetic syndromes associated with pancreatic cancer
The following factors also increase pancreatic cancer risk:
- Long-standing diabetes
- Chronic and hereditary pancreatitis
- Race (ethnicity): African-American or Ashkenazi Jew
- Age: over age 60
- Gender: males a little more likely
- Diets high in red and processed meats
Genetic Testing for Pancreatic Cancer
Genetic testing looks for inherited mutations. If you think you may be at risk for pancreatic cancer, talk to your doctor or genetic counselor. They can give you information on genetic testing and help figure out which tests may be right for you.
For more information about genetic counseling, genetic testing and hereditary pancreatic cancer, contact Patient Central.
What Early Detection Methods Exist for Pancreatic Cancer?
Today, pancreatic cancer early detection or screening methods focus on those at high risk. These options include:
- Surveillance programs
- Regular imaging scans
What Kind of Pancreatic Screening Services Are Available?
No universal screening tests for pancreatic cancer exist yet.
But researchers across the country are studying people who have a high chance of getting pancreatic cancer. Until a reliable early detection test is developed, screening methods for people at increased risk are especially important.
Experts do not know yet when, how or how often high-risk people should be screened. They recommend taking part in studies looking at groups at high risk for pancreatic cancer.
Surveillance studies throughout the country enroll people at high risk. In these programs, doctors check participants for changes in the pancreas.
People at high risk who cannot take part in a surveillance program may get regular imaging scans from a gastroenterologist who specializes in pancreatic cancer.
In a surveillance, early detection or screening program, doctors actively check people who are at risk of getting pancreatic cancer. The goal is to find pancreatic cancer and pre-cancerous lesions earlier in those who develop the disease. Without screening programs, people who develop pancreatic cancer may be diagnosed at a later stage.
Surveillance programs usually use imaging tests to monitor patients. They may also test blood or pancreatic fluids.
Current pancreatic cancer surveillance programs study people at high risk due to family history, an inherited genetic mutation, new onset diabetes or chronic pancreatitis.
Benefits of taking part in a surveillance program include:
- Knowledgeable doctors monitoring you
- Possibly receiving new and better diagnostic tests
- Helping advance early detection efforts
Before joining a surveillance program, you should understand the risks and benefits of screening. The healthcare professionals running the program can help you with this.
To find a surveillance program, genetic counselor or gastroenterologist near you, contact Patient Central.
Pancreatic Cancer Markers
A biomarker is a substance found in the body that can be measured. The amount of a biomarker may differ between a healthy person and someone with a disease. This means biomarkers may aid in diagnosing that disease.
Biomarkers may be found in samples of blood, tissue (from a biopsy), urine, saliva or other substances in the body.
There is no blood test or tumor marker to find or diagnose pancreatic exocrine tumors, the most common pancreatic tumor type.
Some blood tests that measure hormones related to pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) can help with diagnosis of that tumor type. But there is not one specific blood test to find or diagnose these tumors. And this tumor type is rare, making up only about 6 percent of pancreatic cancers.
Some pancreatic exocrine tumors cause higher levels of:
- Liver enzyme
- Antigens (substances that cause the immune system to respond) like CA 19-9 and CEA
High levels of these substances in blood can be a clue for doctors to consider a pancreatic cancer diagnosis. But not all pancreatic tumors cause these changes, and other cancer types and illnesses can also cause them.
Researchers across the world are working to find a standard biomarker or blood test for pancreatic cancer early detection.
What Are the Early Warning Signs of Pancreatic Cancer?
Early pancreatic cancer may cause only vague, unexplained symptoms, such as:
- Pain, usually in the abdomen or back
- Weight loss
- Jaundice (yellowing of the skin, eyes or both) with or without itching
- Appetite loss
- Changes in stool
- Pancreatitis (swelling of the pancreas)
- Recent-onset diabetes
Contact Patient Central for more information about pancreatic cancer symptoms and diagnosis.
Early Detection Research
Early detection is critical to improve pancreatic cancer outcomes. So, many scientists focus their pancreatic cancer research on early detection.
Promising pancreatic cancer early detection projects are underway, including research funded by Pancreatic Cancer Action Network grants.
A few areas being researched now are:
- Biomarkers, or measurable clues, in blood, pancreatic fluid or cyst fluid to detect early pancreatic cancer
- Finding and studying people at high risk
- Better imaging
Learn more about early detection research.
How You Can Help Early Detection Research
- Make a gift to support the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network’s work, including early detection research, that would not be possible without the help of generous supporters
- If you have been diagnosed or have taken care of someone diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, join our Patient Registry to advance research
- If your family has had multiple pancreatic cancer diagnoses or someone diagnosed before age 50, you may consider joining a genetic or family registry
Genetic or family registries collect information about families with multiple pancreatic cancer diagnoses. This often includes information about a family’s:
- History of pancreatic cancer
- Incidence of other cancers
The goal is to find common aspects in families with multiple pancreatic cancer cases that will lead to a better understanding of the disease. Registries are vital to research on hereditary pancreatic cancer causes.
Family registries do not offer early detection or screening for pancreatic cancer.
Contact Patient Central for a list of pancreatic cancer family registries.
We’re Here to Help
For more information about pancreatic cancer risk factors and early detection, contact Patient Central.
Learn about crucial research efforts to find pancreatic cancer earlier for better outcomes.
Understand the genetic aspects of pancreatic cancer, including hereditary risk.
See how pancreatic cancer is found, including tests used.
Accelerate research by sharing your experiences in our global online database.
Get the latest information about various pancreatic cancer topics from specialists.
Information reviewed by PanCAN’s Scientific and Medical Advisory Board, who are experts in the field from such institutions as University of Pennsylvania, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Virginia Mason Medical Center and more.