The exact causes of pancreatic cancer are not yet well understood. Research studies have identified certain risk factors that may increase the likelihood that an individual will develop pancreatic cancer.
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High Risk Individuals
If you have two or more first-degree relatives who have had pancreatic cancer, a first-degree relative who developed pancreatic cancer before the age of 50, or an inherited genetic syndrome associated with pancreatic cancer, you may have an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. The Pancreatic Cancer Action Network strongly recommends consulting with a genetic counselor to determine your risk and eligibility for a screening program.
If you have questions or would like additional information, contact a Patient Central Associate. An Associate can provide resources for genetic counseling.
Risk Factors Associated with Pancreatic Cancer
Risk increases if a person has two or more first-degree relatives (parent, sibling or child) who have had the disease, a first-degree relative who developed pancreatic cancer before the age of 50, or an inherited genetic syndrome associated with pancreatic cancer. The risk increases if a greater number of family members are affected. Also, the risk of pancreatic cancer increases if there is a history of familial breast, ovarian or colon cancer, familial melanoma or hereditary pancreatitis. Approximately 10 percent of pancreatic cancer cases are related to a family history of the disease.
Pancreatic cancer is more likely to occur in people who have long-standing (over 5 years) diabetes.
Chronic Pancreatitis and Hereditary Pancreatitis
People with chronic pancreatitis have an increased risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Chronic pancreatitis is common in individuals who consume large amounts of alcohol for many years.
Hereditary pancreatitis causes recurrent episodes of inflammation of the pancreas that generally start by the time a person is 20 years old. The risk of developing pancreatic cancer is even higher in individuals who have hereditary pancreatitis.
Smoking is a significant risk factor and may cause about 20-30 percent of all exocrine pancreatic cancer cases. People who smoke cigarettes are 2 times more likely to develop pancreatic cancer than people who have never smoked.
African-Americans have a higher incidence of pancreatic cancer compared to individuals of Asian, Hispanic or Caucasian descent. There is also a higher incidence of pancreatic cancer among Ashkenazi Jews, possibly due to a mutation involving the breast cancer (BRCA2) gene that is found in about 1 percent of individuals of this background.
The chance of developing pancreatic cancer increases with age. Most people diagnosed with pancreatic cancer are over the age of 60.
Slightly more men are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer than women. This may be linked to higher smoking rates in men.
The link of diet and the development of pancreatic cancer is still unclear. A diet high in red and processed meats is thought to increase the risk of developing pancreatic cancer. A diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk.
Obese people have a 20 percent increased risk of developing the disease compared to people who are of normal weight. The risk is even higher in people who are obese during early adulthood. People with excessive abdominal fat may have an increased risk independent of general obesity.
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Genetics of pancreatic cancer
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